India To Retain Military Presence In Maldives
New Delhi refutes Male’s claim that India has agreed to withdraw
India is unlikely to nullify its military presence in the Maldives due to the possibility of a growing Chinese presence there. Not surprisingly, New Delhi has refuted Male’s claim that it has agreed to withdraw its military personnel, a team of 88 men running and maintaining helicopters deployed in medical relief.
On Thursday, the Indian External Affairs Ministry refuted the Maldives’ claims that discussions on withdrawing Indian troops took place during a meeting between Maldivian Foreign Minister Moosa Zameer and his Indian counterpart Dr S. Jaishankar in Kampala on the sidelines of the NAM summit.
The Indian External Affairs Ministry’s spokesperson, Randhir Jaiswal, stated in his weekly media briefing on January 18 that the discussions between the two nations were an “ongoing process.” He emphasised that the recent meeting focused on finding mutually workable solutions to enable the “continued operation of Indian aviation platforms” that provide humanitarian and medevac services to the Maldives.
The subject discussed was “the continued operation of Indian aviation platforms” and not on “withdrawal”, according to the Indians. Jaiswal declined to comment on the March 15 deadline given by the Maldivians to withdraw troops
Downgrading the status of the withdrawal issue, Jaiswal said that the discussions between officials who were part of “High-Level Core Group” talks held in Male on January 14. These would continue “soon” when a Maldivian delegation travels to India.
The dates for the visit would be based on mutual convenience, he added, leaving it vague to allow for political manoeuvring.
Jaiswal reaffirmed India’s commitment to its development projects in the Maldives. He claimed that these projects are progressing as planned, with India remaining a key development partner in line with Maldivian priorities.
Regarding a potential state visit of Maldivian President Dr. Mohamed Muizzu to India, Jaiswal clarified that India and the Maldives are facilitating high-level engagements with a constructive agenda based on mutually convenient dates and timelines.
This statement suggests continuous dialogue and coordination at the highest levels, aiming to strengthen bilateral ties.
While the Maldives seeks to assert its sovereignty and reduce Indian military presence, the Indian focus is on maintaining humanitarian assistance and ongoing development cooperation.
The Maldivian stand was tough to begin with, but in a meeting with Jaishankar in Kampala, Foreign Minister Moosa Zameer stressed the continuation of developmental cooperation even as he sought the early withdrawal of troops and claimed that India had agreed to troops withdrawal.
After a meeting with Prime Minister Narendra Modi in early December on the sidelines of the CoP Climate Conference in Dubai, President Muizzu had also claimed that India had “agreed” to withdraw its troops.
On his return to Male from Beijing Muizzu went a step further and said that the Maldives “cannot be bullied” by bigger countries.
‘The Hindu’ said that more is expected to be heard on Muizzu’s position during his address to Parliament slated for February 5.
Muizzu’s demand that the Indian troops should be removed by March 15 is significant as Parliamentary elections are due on March 17. Muizzu’s party is in a minority in the Majlis, and the pro-Indian Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP) being in a majority not.
Muizzu is in a political spot now as his coalition had lost the Male Mayoral election recently.
It is likely that President Muizzu and his ruling coalition will keep the withdrawal demand high on the agenda at least till the March 17 Majlis parliamentary elections because it had been one of the main items in his manifesto in the Presidential election in October 2023.
He won the elections on that platform and is compelled to fulfil it. He can amend the demand or even abandon it only if he wins the parliamentary polls and gets the political elbow room to do so,
The Indian military withdrawal issue has divided the Maldivian polity with the pro-Indian MDP wanting their retention. Muizzu does not have a free hand on this issue even in the domestic arena.
India, on the other hand, has a more long-term interest in keeping a military or security contingent in the Maldives to counter a growing Chinese threat to its dominance in the Indian Ocean.
During his recent visit to China Muizzu signed a number of MoUs including one on Strategic Cooperation for four years and another on the development of the Blue Economy, both of which have strategic implications for India in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR).
China is already committed to building a commercial port in Male. ‘The Hindu’ said that the standoff over the military personnel could affect the 2021 Indo-Maldivian agreement on a Coastguard Harbour project in Uthara Thila Failu that was signed by External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar and then-Maldives Defence Minister Marya Didi.
Going by the list of MoU’s signed, China will be loosening its purse strings significantly, a strategy India may not be able to match.
But India has certain advantages that China cannot match. The first is geographical proximity and long standing people-people contacts. India is also the place ordinary Maldivians go for medical treatment.
Second, every time there was an emergency situation in the Maldives, India had been the first responder. When Male had a drinking water crisis, Indian planes flew in water. When there was an attempted coup with the aid of Sri Lankan Tamil mercenaries in 1988, India rushed troops to crush the insurgency.
Experience shows that India will not respond to calls for withdrawal quickly. In June 1989 Sri Lankan President R. Premadasa gave an ultimatum to the Indian Peace Keeping Force to leave the country. But by the time the last Indian contingent left it was March 1990.
In view of the expected increase in the Chinese presence in the Maldives under the cover of infrastructural and other development works, India would consider the retention of an observation post in the archipelago a strategic imperative. It has a presence now, albeit tiny. It will not allow that to be obliterated.