NEW DELHI: India, in a first, told told a meeting of the UN Human Rights Council Wednesday that it was “concerned” over “lack of political progress” and incidents of “violence, extra-judicial killings and ethnic discrimination” in Nepal.

At the Geneva meeting of the UNHRC on Nepal’s Universal Periodic Review, India’s Acting Permanent Representative to the UN, B N Reddy said: “The people of Nepal, having endured a devastating earthquake in April 2015, are facing another tough challenge during the ongoing political transition. Violence and instability in parts of Nepal has worsened in the run-up to and after the adoption of Nepal’s Constitution in September 2015. Over 45 persons died, mostly civilians, and hundreds injured. Firings, which had ceased just after the adoption of the Constitution, have reoccurred. We are concerned over the lack of political progress.”

“We note the concerns expressed by UN human rights bodies, UN Country Team and Nepal’s own Human Rights Commission over continuing incidents of violence, extra-judicial killings and ethnic discrimination in the country. We urge the Government of Nepal to investigate and take credible measures to prevent their recurrence. Problems facing Nepal are political in nature and cannot be resolved through force or a security-based approach,” Reddy said in a statement cleared by the Ministry of External Affairs.

Reddy urged the Nepal government to take the following steps:

1. “Consolidate the constitution building and democratization process by accommodating all sections of Nepal to enable broad-based ownership and participation”.

2. “Ensure effective functioning of Truth and Reconciliation Commission and full implementation of its recommendations, including prosecution of those responsible for violent insurgency”.

3. “Ensure the independence and financial autonomy of the National Human Rights Commission”.

4. “Set up an independent Commission for children and women”.

Nepal’s Deputy Prime Minister Thapa was quoted in the Indian Express saying, “Under any pretext, disruption of supplies, disruption of transit is not acceptable.”

Thapa said Nepal had incurred losses to the tune of $5 billion in the last two months: “For a country like Nepal, how much suffering can we go through?… Is that justifiable? Can’t Nepal have its own authority to promulgate constitution?”

India-Nepal ties have plummeted since the adoption of Nepal’s new constitution, in which it declared itself a secular state instead of a Hindu rashtra. This has reportedly been a major point of contention for Nepal’s closest ally, India, with reports indicating that the Indian government had levelled pressure on Nepal to declare itself a Hindu Rashtra.

The Indian government, on its part, maintains that its opposition to the new constitution is not to do with Nepal’s status as a Hindu nation, but linked to security concerns as Madhesis are protesting the new constitution in the Terai region of Nepal bordering India.

The Madhesis state that the new constitution will leave them under represented in Parliament, and have been staging protests for the last month. Violent clashes have led to almost 40 deaths.

In connection with the above, India reportedly imposed an ‘unofficial’ blockade at the Birgunj trade checkpoint, effectively cutting off vital supplies -- including petroleum products -- to Nepal.

India denied imposing a blockade, saying that the restrictions on movement of goods and supplies was linked to security concerns over the violence led by the Madhesis along the border.

Nepal, however, maintained that India had imposed a blockade. "Continued obstruction at border customs points and the IOC halting supply of petroleum products have created an abnormal situation in fuel supply," Nepal’s home ministry said in a statement.

The fact that the pressure that India probably hoped to level through the blockade has backfired was cemented by Nepal signing an agreement with China on supply of petroleum products to alleviate shortages.

"Nepal Oil Corporation (NOC) and China National United Fuel Corporation formalized a long-term commercial agreement in Beijing on Wednesday afternoon," a senior Nepali bureaucrat told Times of India. Under the agreement, the bureaucrat added, China will supply fuel at international rates, which Kathmandu might find cheaper than its imports from India. To begin with, China will fulfill at least a third of Nepal's requirements.

Nepal’s agreement with China effectively India’s historic status of Nepal’s sole fuel provider.